By M. Volkar. Ashland University.

In addition buy sildenafil 100mg on line erectile dysfunction drugs sales, there are numerous TCM formulas that combine multiple herbs for use as an Diagnosing anxiety is difficult and complex because anxiety treatment generic 100 mg sildenafil free shipping impotence yoga pose, depending on the individual problem. When a doctor examines an anx- by herbalists or holistic healthcare providers to treat anxi- GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 105 ety. However, buspirone is not effective against villosa), borage (Borago officinalis), licorice (Glycyrrhiza certain types of anxiety, such as panic disorder. Tonics ment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder, of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriafolia), and oats (Avena panic type anxiety, and other anxiety disorders is a group sativa), may also be recommended to ease anxiety. However, further research was need- monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) such as ed, particularly at doses higher than 900 mg per day. Beta-blockers are sometimes given to patients with post- traumatic anxiety symptoms or social phobic anxiety. Allopathic treatment Because anxiety often has more than one cause and Psychotherapy is experienced in highly individual ways, its treatment often requires more than one type of therapy. In some Most patients with anxiety will be given some form cases, several types of treatment may need to be tried be- of psychotherapy along with medication. It usually takes benefit from insight-oriented therapies, which are de- about six to eight weeks to evaluate the effectiveness of a signed to help them uncover unconscious conflicts and treatment regimen. Medications Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) also works well with anxious patients. In CBT, the patient is taught to Medications are often prescribed to relieve the phys- identify thoughts and situations that stimulate his or her ical and psychological symptoms of anxiety. In the be- ications work by counteracting the biochemical and havioral part of the program, the patient is exposed to the muscular changes involved in the fight-or-flight reaction. However, barbiturates, once Expected results commonly used, are now rarely used in clinical practice. Unfortunately, a 2002 report stated that about half of Benzodiazepines work by relaxing the skeletal muscles the patients with an anxiety disorder who see their pri- and calming the limbic system. Washington, DC: The American rates and benzodiazepines, buspirone does not cause de- Psychiatric Association, 1994. Odle rived, aromatic essential oils to promote physical and psychological well-being. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)—The part of the nervous system that supplies nerve endings in the blood vessels, heart, intestines, glands, and smooth muscles; it also governs their involuntary Apis functioning. The autonomic nervous system is re- Description sponsible for the biochemical changes involved in experiences of anxiety. Not all products used in alternative healing come Endocrine gland—A ductless gland, such as the from plants. Apis mellifica is the venom of the common pituitary, thyroid, or adrenal gland, that secretes honeybee or a tincture made from the whole bee. The rem- Hyperarousal—A state or condition of muscular edy made from them is usually called apis. Other folk and emotional tension produced by hormones re- medicine traditions use additional bee-related substances leased during the fight-or-flight reaction. General use Limbic system—A group of structures in the brain Homeopathic medicine operates on the principle that includes the hypothalamus, amygdala, and that “like heals like. The limbic system plays an impor- cured by treating it with products that produce the same tant part in regulation of human moods and emo- symptoms as the disease. In opposi- Phobia—In psychoanalytic theory, a psychologi- tion to traditional medicine, the Law of Infinitesimals cal defense against anxiety in which the patient states that the lower a dose of curative, the more effec- displaces anxious feelings onto an external object, tive it is. In homeopathic terminology, the effectiveness of remedies is “proved” by experimentation and reports by Bloomfield, Harold H. In homeopathic medicine, apis is used as a remedy for many symptoms similar to those of bee stings. Propolis—A sticky resin made by honeybees to Symptoms treated by apis usually appear quite rapid- seal the holes in their hives.

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Most essential oils are Lemon balm has been used safely for thousands of composed of terpenes and their oxygenated deriv- years discount sildenafil 25 mg otc impotence treatment reviews. Use caution when harvesting be- Flavonoids—A class of water-soluble plant pig- cause of the likely presence of bees cheap sildenafil 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction at age 27. Side effects Sedative—A medication or preparation given to The sedative effect of lemon balm means that it can calm or soothe nervousness or irritability. Lemon depress the central nervous system when given in high balm has sedative properties. In addition, it has been reported that persons with Volatile oil—The fragrant oil that can be obtained glaucoma should avoid using essential oil of lemon from a plant by distillation. Persons taking any medica- ORGANIZATIONS tion containing thyroid hormones should not take lemon Herb Research Foundation. A physician should be consulted before taking Southwest School of Botanical Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Mon- graphs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Aside from folk med- icine, lemongrass is a favorite ingredient in Thai cuisine and dishes that boast a tangy, Asian flavor. While there are several species of lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus is the variety most often recommended for medicinal purposes. Native to Southeast Asia, lemongrass can also be found growing in India, South America, Africa, Aus- tralia, and the United States. Only the fresh or dried leaves of lemongrass, and the essential oil derived from them, are used as a drug. Cymbopogon citratus, which belongs to the Poaceae family of plants, is also referred to as West Indian lemongrass. Not to be confused with lemon balm, which is an entirely different herb, lemongrass is considered by herbalists to have several useful properties, including an- tibacterial, antifungal, and fever-reducing effects. In one test-tube investigation, published in the medical journal Microbios in 1996, researchers demonstrated that lemongrass was effective against 22 strains of bacteria and 12 types of fungi. A study conducted in rodents sug- gests that myrcene, a chemical found in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus, may act as a site-specific pain reliever. Unlike aspirin and similar analgesics, which tend to alleviate pain throughout the body, myrcene seems to work only on particular areas. A study involv- ing people indicates that lemongrass may also affect the way the body processes cholesterol. More recently, lemongrass has been shown to have antimutagenic properties; that is, researchers have found that it is able to reverse chemically induced mutations in certain strains of bacteria. While they may not be aware of it, most Americans have already tried lemongrass in one form or another. Citral, a key chemical found in Cymbopogon citratus,is an ingredient in a variety of foods and beverages (includ- ing alcohol). It can be found in candies, puddings, baked goods, meat products, and even in certain fats and oils. Like other essential oils, lemongrass is also used as a fragrance enhancer in many perfumes, soaps, and detergents. General use While not approved by the Food and Drug Adminis- tration (FDA), lemongrass reportedly has a wide variety of therapeutic effects. Repro- studied extensively in people, its effectiveness is based duced by permission. Preparations When taken internally, lemongrass has been recom- The optimum daily dosage of lemongrass, which is mended for stomachaches, diarrhea, gas, bowel available as fresh or dried herb or as lemongrass oil, has spasms, vomiting, fever, the flu, and headaches and not been established with any certainty. To treat circulatory disorders, some au- use of alternative remedies to determine proper dosage. Lemongrass tea can be prepared by steeping 1–2 tsp The link between lemongrass and cholesterol was of the herb (fresh or dried) in a cup of boiling water. The investigated by researchers from the Department of Nu- mixture should be strained after 10–15 minutes. The tea is tritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin, who pub- generally taken several times a day.

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There are two types of chondrosarcomas purchase sildenafil 75mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction treatment home, There are some reports of affected people living into their either primary or secondary purchase sildenafil 25mg visa impotence sexual dysfunction. Secondary chondrosarcomas are lesions Resources produced from pre-existing cartilage lesions. The chon- drosarcoma tumors either produce enlargement or ero- BOOKS sion of the area involved. The cartilage laid down is GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 227 Demographics KEY TERMS In 2001, an estimated 2,900 new cases of bone and joint cancer will be diagnosed. Cartilage—Supportive connective tissue which Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary cushions bone at the joints or which connects malignant bone tumor, meaning it did not originate at muscle to bone. Findings range from twice as many males to Curettage—A surgical scraping or cleaning. Chondrosarcoma occurs in people from the age of 30-70 years old, but it Enchondromas—Benign cartilaginous tumors aris- most commonly affects people over the age of 40. The signs and symptoms vary due to the type of Maffucci disease—A manifestation of Ollier dis- tumor, but pain is typically the first symptom. If it is a ease (multiple enchondromatosis) with heman- fast growing, high grade form of chondrosarcoma, then giomas, which present as soft tissue masses. If the tumor is located in the pelvis or Ollier disease—Also termed multiple enchondro- hip area, the individual may have difficulty with urination matosis. The patient may also have the sensa- bone extremities that result in benign cartilaginous tion of a groin pull if the tumor is in the pelvic area. Usually, chondrosarcoma is diagnosed with x ray Urinary urgency—An exaggerated or increased radiography. The appearance of a soft tissue mass that has not yet calcified may also be visible. If the chondrosarcoma is secondary not reabsorbed and masses form near the ends of the long to another type of tumor, the chondrosarcoma may start bones such as the thigh bone (femur) and upper arm bone to erode the edges of the other tumor. Maffucci disease has the same abnormalities where an enchondroma, a type of tumor within the bone as Ollier disease as well as soft tissue destruction includ- shaft, is present. Patients with Maffucci or Ollier disease duces areas of lysis, or destruction of the surrounding should have bone scans every three to five years to mon- tissue. Grade 1 chondrosarcomas, or low-grade slow growing Genetic profile lesions, have a mild increase of new cell growth. Grade 3 chondrosarcomas are the opposite: they are high-grade, Anomalies of chromosomes 5, 7, 8, and 18 and fast growing, and have a dramatic increase in cellular structural alterations of chromosomes 1, 12, and 15 are growth. The more radiolucent, or transparent to x rays, commonly found in patients diagnosed with chondrosar- the tumor appears, the greater the chance it is a higher coma. Computed suppressor gene, EXT1, have shown that changes (muta- tomography scanning, CT, is an advanced form of x ray tions) of this gene may also be important in the growth of that can also produce bone pictures and help determine chondrosarcoma. Magnetic 228 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS resonance imaging, MRI, will aid diagnosis since it can American Cancer Society. High- grade chondrosarcomas necessitate more radical opera- tions where normal tissue is also removed due to the possibility of spread. If the tumor is located in an extrem- IChoroideremia ity such as an arm or leg, then amputation, or surgical Definition removal of the extremity, may be necessary in order to prevent metastasis, or spread of the cancer. Choroideremia is a rare genetic disorder causing Chemotherapy and radiotherapy may also be used progressive eyesight loss due to the wasting away of reti- depending on the type of tumor and the area of the body nal layers. It first affects the choroid and the retinal pig- affected, but are usually not effective. Prognosis The higher the grade of a chondrosarcoma, the more Description likely the tumor will spread and thus worsen the progno- sis. One study found the five year survival rate of patients Formerly called tapetochoroidal dystrophy, choroi- with grades 1, 2, and 3 to be 90%, 83%, and 43% respec- deremia is a chronic form of retinal disease characterized tively. This means that five years after the diagnosis of by degeneration of the layers of the retina, which is the the tumor, 90 out of 100 people with grade 1 were still light-sensitive part of the eye. On the opposite spectrum, 43 out of 100 patients layers: the outer neural retina, consisting of nerve cells with grade 3 chondrosarcoma survived five years. Size of the a capillary layer (chorio capillaris); and the photorecep- tumor is also an important factor. Tumors greater than 4 tor (light-sensitive) layer that contain the rods and cones, in (10 cm) are more likely to become aggressive and which function as detectors to process light, color and spread. Resources The pigmentary changes in the RPE begin with fine BOOKS spotting and continue with areas of depigmentation and Bridge, Julia A.

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