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To do that: Efforts are made to create an atmosphere in therapy where the individuals are helped to reorient themselves from focusing on their problems to recog- nizing and utilizing their strengths to resolve their problems discount 20 mg erectafil with amex erectile dysfunction treatment in egypt. Better goals can get you out of your stuck places and can lead you into a more fulfilling future buy erectafil 20 mg with amex erectile dysfunction doctor dublin. Much of the work for SFT lies in the negotiation of an achievable goal (Berg & de Shazer, 1993; Berg & Miller, 1992). Instead of changing personality and psychopathology types, SFT therapists help clients construct well-defined goals (Berg & Miller, 1992; de Shazer, 1991; Walter & Peller, 1992). Instead of having negative goals such as "I will get rid of my depression," the goals should be positive. A solution-focused therapist may ask, "Instead of being depressed, what will you be doing? A simple question to ask is "As you leave my office today, and you are on track, what will you be doing or saying differently to yourself? In so doing, the therapist em- powers the client to succeed and avoid disappointment. To help the client put his or her global, abstract, and ambiguous goals in specific, concrete, and objectively measurable terms, questions such as "How specifically will you be doing this? Use the client’s words for formulating goals rather than the therapist’s theoretical jargon (Prochaska & Norcross, 2003, pp. After the goal for therapy is set, solution-focused therapists play an active role in shifting the focus as quickly as possible from problem talk to solution talk. To capitalize on the client’s existing strengths and resources, a question like this is asked: It is our experience that many people notice that things are better be- tween the time they set up an appointment and the time they come in for the first session. Rather than rigidly adhering to the format of immediately asking a direct question about any presession changes in the beginning of the first session, this question, like any useful ques- tion, should be asked in a timely fashion. The task goes like this: Between now and the next time we meet, I would like you to observe, so you can describe to me next time, what happens in your (pick one: Strategic and Solution-Focused Couples Therapy 201 family, life, marriage, relationship) that you want to continue to have happen. This question prevents clients’ global and persistent perception of their problems and directs their attention to times in the past or present when they did not have the problem, when ordinarily they would have: Can you think of a time when you didn’t have the problem? This is an example of such a question: "Suppose one night, while you were asleep, there was a miracle and this problem was solved. The question is used to activate a positive problem-solving mind-set as well as to steer the client to articulate a clear vision of the goal in treatment. It further helps the client look beyond his or her problem to what the solution would look like (Berg & Miller, 1992). Indirect compliments trigger more self-observation or self-introspection and can unleash more resiliency, creativity, and strength to discover, consolidate, and expand successful solutions (Berg & Miller, 1992). Solution-focused therapists also come up with five practical guides to therapeutic choices for the therapist and the client: 1. If nothing seems to be working, choose to experiment, including imagining miracles. RATIONALE OF SSCT AND GUIDELINES FOR SELECTIVELY INTEGRATING TECHNIQUES FROM SCT AND SFT At first glance, especially to a novice practitioner, there appears to be an incompatibility between strategic couples therapy (SCT) and solution- focused therapy (SFT). We may raise the question of how these two distinct approaches to therapy can be integrated. This is especially so, since they es- pouse two diametrically opposed epistemologies. However, on careful study and consideration, the utility of SSCT’s integration of selected tech- niques from each school of therapy is readily appreciated. Once under- stood, there are several compelling, though not obvious, reasons for such integration. Second, combining the two approaches can provide the therapist with a more comprehensive and bal- anced view of an issue than either one alone. Just as there are always two valid sides to a story or conflict between a couple, so a dialectical approach utilized by SSCT to selectively integrate principles from two apparently opposite therapy models is isomorphic to the couple and is a sound alterna- tive for couples therapy. SSCT utilizes SCT, which espouses the Structural- ist epistemology, to provide normative information from our family life cycle knowledge in order to help certain couples realize the normalcy and validity of their dilemmas and difficulties in life (Carter & McGoldrick, 1999; Haley, 1973).
During embryonic development cheap 20mg erectafil erectile dysfunction natural treatments, each of the nerves of branchial arches 2 20 mg erectafil erectile dysfunction zyprexa, 3, 4 and 6 gives off a branch which pass into the territory of the preceding (cranial) branchial arch (second arch to first arch, third arch to second arch etc). Since, in order to take such a course, these branches pass from the caudal to the cranial sides of the slit between two adjacent branchial arches (Latin: trema means slit), these nerves are known as the pretrematic branches. The chorda tympani is generally accepted as the pretrematic branch of the second branchial arch nerve. It passes from second arch tissue to first arch tissue through the tympanic membrane which is itself in the trema between the first and second arches. It contains two types of visceral fibre: afferent (taste) and efferent (parasympathetic). Should these sprouting fibres find their way into Schwann cells sheaths occupied before surgery by sympathetic fibres, stimuli normally producing salivation will instead induce sweat- ing over the site of the parotid. This is why the gan- glion is sometimes called the hay fever ganglion although these symptoms are usually allergic. This is sometimes done to try to locate the position of a calculus in the duct of a salivary gland, usually the submandibular, but is not done to test the neural pathways since, as we have said, who cares? What is usually referred to as the olfactory nerve is properly the olfactory tract and bulb, and is an outgrowth of the forebrain. Primary sensory neu- rons are bipolar and are confined to the olfactory epithelium. Their central processes make up the numerous nerves which pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Olfaction is inextricably linked with taste; their central con- nections are poorly defined. Smell: the olfactory nerve (I) 107 Olfactory bulb, where bipolar neurons synapse on mitral cells Axons of mitral cells pass to Central processes olfactory areas of forebrain pass through cribriform plate Cell bodies of bipolar neurons in olfactory epithelium Fig. The olfactory bulb, tract, striae and connections Axons pass posteriorly in olfactory tract, through olfactory striae to limbic system of brain, particularly the uncus and amygdala of the temporal lobe, thus providing connections with memory circuitry and much else. Olfaction and taste are clearly closely linked and it is thought that from the nucleus of the solitary tract,to which taste fibres pass, axons project to the uncus to connect with olfactory centres. Anosmia can also be caused by blockage of the nasal cavities, for example a nasal polyp or malignancy. This should be considered if clear fluid issues from the nose after a head injury. The smells which are experienced are usually unpleasant and are often accompanied by pseudo-purposeful movements associated with tasting such as licking the lips. You might just as well rely on the subjective opinion of the patient which is, after all, what matters most. Chapter 19 THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE HEAD Sympathetic fibres are not conveyed from the brain or brain stem in cranial nerves, but are found in distal branches of some cranial nerves. They are not usually considered components of cranial nerves, but they appear here for the sake of completeness. In addition, various structures in the eye receive a sympathetic innervation, particularly dilator pupillae and part of levator palpebrae superioris muscle. This means that if their destination is the head,they leave the spinal cord in upper thor- acic spinal nerves and thence pass back up to the head. Preganglionic axons: T1, neck of first rib, cervical chain, synapse in superior cervical ganglion • Preganglionic axons arise in lateral grey horn of T1 and/or T2 segments of spinal cord, and possibly also C8. Postganglionic axons • From SCG, postganglionic fibres pass to wall of adjacent internal and external carotid arteries forming plexus around them. Cavernous sinus, orbital sympathetics, deep petrosal, on vertebral arteries • As internal carotid artery passes through cavernous sinus, post- ganglionic fibres on its wall pass in fibrous strands which con- nect artery to lateral wall of sinus. This provides another route to orbit and eye and, through branches of ophthalmic nerve, to scalp. Joins greater petrosal nerve to form nerve of pterygoid canal to pterygopalatine fossa. The sympathetic nervous system in the head 111 • Some fibres pass through cervical vertebral foramina transver- saria with vertebral arteries to vessels of vertebrobasilar system. Levator palpebrae superioris is partly supplied by the sympathetic system, and so would be weakened leading to drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis).
These problems can arise from damage caused by MS to many different pathways of the visual system order erectafil 20 mg on-line erectile dysfunction when young. Thus it is important to acknowledge that eye problems are very likely to be the result of MS and to seek support on this basis order erectafil 20 mg amex impotence research. However, eyesight problems can occur for many other reasons than MS – people may have short or long sight or other visual problems, for which glasses or contact lenses will be useful and, as people age, some of these problems will become more evident. So be sure to have these problems, and those speciﬁcally caused by the MS itself, checked out. Eyesight Optic neuritis What is called optic neuritis is probably the most common visual symptom of MS, perhaps appears in 50% of people with MS, and indeed may well appear before any other symptoms of the disease are obvious. Optic neuritis (inﬂammation of the optic nerve, which is at the back of the eye) may result in various kinds of vision loss or difﬁculty. The acute form may result in temporary loss or disturbance of vision in one eye, and very occasionally vision loss at the same time in both eyes – although one eye may follow the other in being affected. Vision loss or disturbance may most often be in the centre of the eye, but it may also be in peripheral vision. Even those people with normal sharpness of vision (visual acuity) may have a reduced capacity to deal with contrasts in their visual ﬁeld, or have reduced colour vision. In almost all cases vision reappears and is often almost back to normal after a period of time. Symptoms of optic neuritis can worsen for up to 2 weeks after its initial onset, then most people recover rapidly and have improved back to their pre-attack state after 5 weeks. Some people who have had an attack may feel that the quality of their vision is not quite as it was, and they can be left with some problems in relation to colour vision, depth perception and contrast sensitivity. Optic neuritis can also be present without any obvious major symptoms, although on careful checking minor abnormalities can often be detected in such cases. It is important to say that there are a range of other conditions that may result in condiditons similar to optic neuritis. In relation to MS itself there is strong link between the presence of optic neuritis and the disease in the form of CNS lesions – mostly the larger the number of lesions detected by MRI the more likely MS is the cause. Treating optic neuritis Corticosteroids have been the main basis of medical treatment for optic neuritis for some time, even though there is conﬂicting research about the effectiveness of their use. The basis of the use of these drugs is that they have some effect on the immune system. In relation to what can be described as inﬂammatory eye disease, it is thought they could help in reducing the inﬂammation. A combination of methylprednisolone and prednisone may be given, although this may vary. Because in most cases (even the most severe), vision returns to something like its previous state in a reasonable period of time, some neurologists are reluctant to give powerful steroid drugs, which can have signiﬁcant side effects. So, although it is worrying for people with a sudden onset of these symptoms, waiting for the return of vision or the lessening of visual disturbances is often the strategy that is followed. With the advent of beta-interferon type drugs in MS (where optic neuritis can be one symptom), there has been increasing pressure to give such drugs at an earlier stage in the condition. In principle, if the MS could be detected earlier – and optic neuritis is a frequent symptom occurring before MS has been diagnosed – then optic neuritis would probably be a symptom that responded to such a treatment. However, deﬁnitively diagnosing MS at such an early stage may not be easy, and there is still much debate about how appropriate the beta-interferons are to give to all people at that stage of MS. EYESIGHT AND HEARING PROBLEMS 143 Eye movement abnormalities Eye movement abnormalities are quite common in MS. They might involve rapid but regular eye movements (usually described as ‘nystagmus’) or take a range of other forms including a temporarily ﬁxed gaze. Many of these abnormal movements may not even be recognized by the person with MS, and are more likely to be noticed by others. Occasionally people with MS experience a more troubling form of nystagmus, which involves very slow but regular eye movements associated sometimes with dizziness and nausea. Nystagmus is a difﬁcult condition to treat successfully, for the damage that causes it can be very different in different cases. Clonazepam (Rivotril) can sometimes help the problem, as can baclofen or gabapentin and scopolamine, although it is often a case of trial and error in their use. Uhtoff’s phenomenon Another occasional symptom is a visual disturbance after exercise, a meal or hot bath (‘Uhtoff’s phenomenon’), almost certainly due to increased body heat affecting nerve conduction. Other sight problems Although it is unusual for someone with MS to lose their sight completely (even if this is only temporary), many people have episodes during which their sight will become worse.
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